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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:wsqz.com.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械手(shou)由(you)主体(ti)、驱(qu)动(dong)系统(tong)和(he)控(kong)制(zhi)系统(tong)三个(ge)基(ji)本部(bu)分组成。按机(ji)器人结构(gou)分类为(wei)直(zhi)角(jiao)坐标型(xing),机(ji)械手(shou)沿二维直(zhi)角(jiao)坐标系移动(dong)。主体(ti)部(bu)分通(tong)常采(cai)用(yong)(yong)龙门式结构(gou),由(you)y向(xiang)横梁(liang)与导(dao)(dao)轨、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen)、十字滑(hua)座(zuo)、立柱、过(guo)(guo)(guo)渡连接板和(he)基(ji)座(zuo)等部(bu)分组成,z向(xiang)的(de)直(zhi)线运动(dong)皆为(wei)交流伺(si)服电动(dong)机(ji)通(tong)过(guo)(guo)(guo)蜗(wo)轮(lun)减速器驱(qu)动(dong)齿(chi)轮(lun)与y向(xiang)横梁(liang)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen)上(shang)固定的(de)齿(chi)条(tiao)作滚动(dong),驱(qu)动(dong)移动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)沿导(dao)(dao)轨快速运动(dong)。移动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)为(wei)质量较轻(qing)的(de)十字滑(hua)座(zuo)和(he)z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen),滑(hua)枕(zhen)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)由(you)铝合金(jin)拉制(zhi)的(de)型(xing)材。横梁(liang)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)方(fang)钢型(xing)材,在横梁(liang)上(shang)安装有导(dao)(dao)轨和(he)齿(chi)条(tiao),通(tong)过(guo)(guo)(guo)滚轮(lun)与导(dao)(dao)轨接触,整(zheng)个(ge)机(ji)械手(shou)都悬挂(gua)在其(qi)上(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)于(yu)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)速(su)度(du)(du)快,加(jia)速(su)度(du)(du)大,加(jia)减速(su)时(shi)间短。当输(shu)(shu)送(song)较重的(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)时(shi),惯量大,因此,伺(si)服驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)要(yao)有足够的(de)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)能力,支(zhi)撑元件(jian)(jian)(jian)也要(yao)有足够的(de)刚度(du)(du)及(ji)强度(du)(du)。只有这样,才能使伺(si)服电(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)满足桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)高响应、高刚度(du)(du)及(ji)高精(jing)度(du)(du)要(yao)求。在(zai)(zai)选(xuan)(xuan)择合适(shi)伺(si)服电(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)情况下,根(gen)(gen)据(ju)物(wu)料运动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)距离和(he)运行(xing)节拍,计(ji)(ji)算出伺(si)服系(xi)统的(de)位移和(he)轨迹,对驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)PID参数进行(xing)动(dong)(dong)(dong)态(tai)调(diao)整(zheng)。桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)根(gen)(gen)据(ju)接收到的(de)位移、速(su)度(du)(du)指令,经变化、放(fang)大并调(diao)整(zheng)处理后,传递(di)给(ji)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)单元,通(tong)(tong)过(guo)光纤传感器(qi)对运行(xing)状(zhuang)态(tai)进行(xing)实(shi)时(shi)检测,在(zai)(zai)高速(su)搬(ban)运过(guo)程(cheng)中,运动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)(jian)在(zai)(zai)极短的(de)时(shi)间内到达给(ji)定的(de)速(su)度(du)(du),并能在(zai)(zai)高速(su)行(xing)程(cheng)中瞬间准停,通(tong)(tong)过(guo)高分(fen)辩率绝(jue)对式编(bian)码器(qi)的(de)插(cha)补(bu)运算,控(kong)制机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)误(wu)差(cha)和(he)测量误(wu)差(cha)对运动(dong)(dong)(dong)精(jing)度(du)(du)的(de)影响。由(you)于(yu)被(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)不同,质量也不同,因此,桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)有多种规格和(he)系(xi)列。在(zai)(zai)选(xuan)(xuan)择时(shi),根(gen)(gen)据(ju)被(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)质量,加(jia)工(gong)的(de)节拍来选(xuan)(xuan)取。但机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)手(shou)臂(bei),夹(jia)持(chi)方式,则根(gen)(gen)据(ju)被(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)形状(zhuang)、结(jie)构及(ji)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)具(ju)定夹(jia)方式来设计(ji)(ji)(见图2)。

机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)能够(gou)借助(zhu)可编程序来处理和执(zhi)行任务。机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)主要(yao)(yao)由手(shou)(shou)图 1 臂、回转装(zhuang)置、运动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)及驱动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)组成。通(tong)过对(dui)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)外(wai)形(xing)或工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)上定(ding)位支撑点(dian)定(ding)位夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)。例如,在汽车(che)发动(dong)机加(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性自动(dong)线(xian)物流输送(song)中,桁(heng)架(jia)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)会根据缸体(ti)、缸盖、曲(qu)轴(zhou)等(deng)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)外(wai)形(xing)特点(dian),选(xuan)取不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位和夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)方式。柔(rou)(rou)性机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上采用(yong)气缸和电(dian)机进行定(ding)位和夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)切(qie)换驱动(dong),一套(tao)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)可完成不(bu)同品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)搬运工(gong)作。夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)块(kuai)可根据产品(pin)质(zhi)量和外(wai)形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)大小采用(yong)系列化(hua)设(she)计,机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)块(kuai)安装(zhuang)方式相同,针对(dui)不(bu)同系列的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只需切(qie)换相应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)块(kuai)即可,满足快速切(qie)换的(de)(de)(de)需要(yao)(yao)。这(zhei)样(yang),当加(jia)工(gong)不(bu)同品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只须变换夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)就可实现,提高了桁(heng)架(jia)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性化(hua)。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送装置的发(fa)展及现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)两个(ge)时代。就目(mu)前而(er)(er)言, 在国内二者均有(you)之。刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)棘轮棘爪、摆(bai)杆、抬(tai)起(qi)步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形式。随(sui)着加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由其(qi)(qi)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)逐(zhu)步(bu)替代组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),它(ta)以(yi)适应(ying)小批(pi)量多品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到(dao)市(shi)场的(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认(ren)可(ke),并(bing)(bing)称(cheng)其(qi)(qi)为(wei)(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种(zhong)(zhong)以(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),就其(qi)(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)或(huo)(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带依(yi)然为(wei)(wei)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)(shi)准(zhun)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)又有(you)了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形式以(yi)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou))并(bing)(bing)存,或(huo)(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)全部(bu)由桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng),这(zhei)是(shi)(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),即(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如(ru)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心配以(yi)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又称(cheng)之为(wei)(wei)敏(min)捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)敏(min)捷(jie)制(zhi)造系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)采用(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)可(ke)根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)随(sui)意改变,自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang)位置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)再象刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那(nei)样,按照(zhao)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)或(huo)(huo)步(bu)距(ju)倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)要求进行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也可(ke)根据(ju)生产(chan)节拍及输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离而(er)(er)改变。而(er)(er)真正体现(xian)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要一面(mian)是(shi)(shi),当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)产(chan)品(pin)改变后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)不(bu)会不(bu)适应(ying)而(er)(er)全部(bu)更(geng)换,只要改变输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)(cheng)序和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)局(ju)部(bu)结构即(ji)可(ke)。采用(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更(geng)先进的(de)(de)(de)(de)一面(mian)是(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)整体的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)、智能化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)协(xie)调统(tong)(tong)一。因此,桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)才在当今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上越(yue)来越(yue)多地(di)被采用(yong),使整个(ge)生产(chan)过程(cheng)(cheng)通过信息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)进行(xing)控(kong)制(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)过程(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong),所需各种(zhong)(zhong)信息(xi)收(shou)集、处(chu)理(li)、反馈,并(bing)(bing)通过电(dian)子(zi)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)(huo)其(qi)(qi)他控(kong)制(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(液压、气压装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)等(deng)),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)(huo)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行(xing)分(fen)(fen)级控(kong)制(zhi)。信息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)由中(zhong)(zhong)央管理(li)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、物(wu)流控(kong)制(zhi)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)制(zhi)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)及信息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。目(mu)前,汽车(che)制(zhi)造业中(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖及曲(qu)轴(zhou)等(deng)大批(pi)量关键(jian)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大都采用(yong)了桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见(jian)图3)。

2. 国内外的(de)差距(ju)

当下,我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的发展很快(kuai),技术水(shui)平(ping)(ping)有了(le)(le)很大(da)(da)的提高(gao),与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的差距变得越(yue)来越(yue)小,甚至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)相比已经没有什么差距。特别(bie)是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大(da)(da)科技专(zhuan)(zhuan)项(xiang)的开(kai)展,为我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上档(dang)次(ci)上水(shui)平(ping)(ping)提高(gao)了(le)(le)加(jia)速(su)度,成(cheng)(cheng)绩显而(er)易见(jian)。加(jia)工(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)这几(ji)年发展的特别(bie)快(kuai),但(dan)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的技术水(shui)平(ping)(ping)和(he)档(dang)次(ci),较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的差距还很明显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)较为普(pu)遍,而(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)却为数不多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)庞(pang)大(da)(da)的汽车生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)市场所采(cai)用(yong)(yong)的带桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)(da)多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)进口。如无(wu)锡柴油发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的缸体(ti)缸盖柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公(gong)司(si)总承包(bao),由BZ800加(jia)工(gong)中心、GROB专(zhuan)(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)、试(shi)漏(lou)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)检具、辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩(heng)磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)组成(cheng)(cheng)。输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)空中桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)。仅(jin)以汽车制造业(ye)而(er)言(yan),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)的柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),采(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的屈指可数。大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)和(he)沈(shen)阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)等生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)出了(le)(le)该方面的柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),并在生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)实际中得到(dao)了(le)(le)应用(yong)(yong)。图4是(shi)大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)的DKX017缸体(ti)加(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加(jia)工(gong)两(liang)(liang)种缸体(ti),分(fen)别(bie)为四缸和(he)六缸,其(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)空中桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)两(liang)(liang)端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)等形式(shi)。桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)两(liang)(liang)个,一个上料,一个下料。它的成(cheng)(cheng)功,标志着(zhe)我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)由桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)开(kai)始(shi)向国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际水(shui)准(zhun)迈进。

上述提(ti)及(ji)的(de)(de)只是(shi)数量上的(de)(de)比较,其实(shi)真正的(de)(de)原因还是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械手的(de)(de)技(ji)术水(shui)平(ping)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)有着(zhe)一定(ding)的(de)(de)差(cha)距。柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线采用(yong)的(de)(de)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械手,也(ye)是(shi)从(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进(jin)口的(de)(de)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械手。那时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)还没有专(zhuan)门生(sheng)(sheng)产桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械手的(de)(de)厂家(jia)。如今,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)巨(ju)一等一些桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械手生(sheng)(sheng)产厂家(jia)的(de)(de)涌出,为国(guo)(guo)(guo)产柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线带来(lai)了希望,进(jin)而缩小了与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)在(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)产桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械手方(fang)面的(de)(de)差(cha)距,国(guo)(guo)(guo)产桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械手在(zai)柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线的(de)(de)应用(yong)也(ye)越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)多(duo),从(cong)而打破国(guo)(guo)(guo)产市场被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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